Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) is a transportation system that the country began to study in the middle of the last century. In today's world, with the development of automobiles, many countries have begun to develop and apply the system, and many achievements have been made.
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ITS is a comprehensive technical solution designed to overcome the conflicts between roads, vehicles and people. The highly developed information technology and communication technology enable the establishment and implementation of this technology solution, and the application, promotion and development of this system provide a guarantee for a safe, efficient and environmentally friendly automobile society.
Let us review the history of Japan's ITS, and then look at its current situation and look to its future.
I. The era of each war (1969-1995)
In the mid-to-late 1960s, cars, air conditioners, and color televisions replaced washing machines, refrigerators, and black-and-white televisions as "new three artifacts" that Japanese people rushed to bid for.
The car quickly entered the thousands of households in Japan. By the early 1970s, some big cities in Japan were already full of cars and crowded.
In 1969, Japan began importing traffic management systems in some cities, using road information bulletin boards and broadcasts to provide congestion information to vehicles on the road. This kind of attempt to manage roads and vehicles involves many infrastructures for road construction, such as setting up sensing devices and electronic signage on some sections of highways, and opening a national unified traffic jam broadcasting band (Zhongbo 1620). . By the time the traffic project came to an end in 1978, it was limited to using radio or billboards to tell road traffic information on the road, and the driver of the vehicle decided to follow the route. This kind of random judgment is like a driver who does not understand the surrounding road conditions, so most private car owners still choose to endure the pain of traffic jams even if they hear the road information.
Car maps and navigators are largely developed to give drivers an idea of â€‹â€‹the roads around them. In 1981, Honda Motor Co., Ltd. first developed an on-board map that uses the gyro principle to display the position of the car. Because of the lack of precision, it has not been promoted. In 1987, Nippon Denso developed a car map that burns map information on a CD. In 1991, the GPS signal was used to measure the position of the vehicle, and the vehicle can be automatically guided to the destination of the navigation device. In the following year, there is no need to repeatedly confirm the screen. Just listen to the sneak prompts and get the favorite of the private car owners. Since then, the Japanese car navigation system has been rapidly promoted.
With the rapid spread of cars, traffic fatal accidents have occurred frequently. In 1970, the number of people killed in traffic accidents in Japan hit a record high of 16,756. These accidents have caused irreparable pain to the family and brought huge economic losses to the society. According to a survey conducted by relevant Japanese authorities, the largest proportion of vehicle accidents was rear-end collision (31%), followed by collision (26%). In order to improve the passive safety performance of Japanese cars, Japanese car companies have made unremitting efforts, and various seat belt related devices, such as anti-lock brakes (ABS), safety car body technology and various airbags, are in the Implemented in Japanese cars from the 1970s to the early 1990s.
By the early 1990s, despite the efforts of the Japanese government and enterprises for nearly 30 years, the traffic situation has been improved to some extent, but an effective traffic management system in which people, vehicles and roads coexist harmoniously has not yet formed. In 1995, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, the Ministry of Transport, the Postal Province, the Ministry of Construction, and the Police Department of Japan formulated guidelines for the implementation of roads, transportation, and vehicles, and opened the prelude to the research, development, and implementation of the ITS system.
Second, the status of ITS implementation (1996 to 2008)
In July 1996, the five departments formulated a more detailed ITS concept, and prepared to use 15 to 20 years to make Japan's roads more intelligent and realize the harmonious interaction between people, vehicles and roads. There are nine specific contents of the concept: high-performance car navigation system, automatic toll collection system, safe driving support system, traffic management intelligence, road management efficiency, public transportation support system, commercial vehicle efficiency, pedestrian support system and emergency vehicle. Run the support system.
(1) Vehicle Information Communication System (VICS) and high-performance car navigation system
The VICS (Vehicle Information & Communication System), which began in 1996, is the core system of this period. The system will organize and process traffic information collected from police and road management departments throughout Japan and disseminate them to various vehicles in three ways. First, for the expressway user, the road information within 200 kilometers in the forward direction is provided to the vehicle passing through the device (signal receiving diameter of 70 meters) by the radio wave device on the road.
For users of non-highway roads, two types of media are used to transmit information. For the vehicles driving on the main trunk road, the light wave device on the road passes through the current situation of Figure 1: Japanese ITS application.
The vehicle of the device (signal accepting diameter of 3.5 km) provides road information for 30 km in the forward direction and 1 km in the rear. The broadcast frequency of these two kinds of information is 2.4 GHz. For general road vehicles, FM radio broadcasts are used and broadcast in the entire county (equivalent to the province of China) or within the corresponding range. Compared with previous road information, the accuracy of VICS information is greatly improved. Because the VICS information is based on various sensing devices placed on the side of the road, it can transmit a variety of very accurate images and sounds in real time. Drivers can use these precise information to make a variety of reactions.
Compatible with VICS is a high-performance car navigation system that can accept this signal. The road information provided by VICS can be directly displayed on the screen of the navigator and the road. The road congestion is color-coded. For example, red indicates very congestion. Orange indicates congestion, allowing drivers to intuitively understand the overall condition of the blockage, compare the surrounding road conditions, and consciously avoid crowded roads. The navigator can also evade congested roads and retrieve new driving routes according to the driver's instructions.
Before VICS was opened, if the driver did not listen to the road broadcast, he would know nothing about the road information. VICS can not only automatically reflect road information to the screen, but also insert emergency information such as earthquakes, landslides and accidents directly into the screen to improve the safety factor of driving.
With the development of embedded technology and the hard disk of information storage, car navigation systems are no longer the same, it is not only the driver's clairvoyant, downwind ears, but also a good assistant for safe driving. VICS will promptly insert the various information that needs attention or take countermeasures, such as accident information, parallel vehicle information, meeting information, front information of each lane, etc. into the screen to prompt the owner to prevent or reduce accidents.
At the same time, car navigation devices have become an indispensable entertainment device in private cars. Watching TV, playing discs, connecting iPods or music devices, etc., makes people's life in this small space of the vehicle more colorful.
(2) ETC and ITS vehicle mounted devices
ETC (Electronic Toll Collection System) is an indispensable part of the ITS system. Since its inception in March 2001, the system has sold more than 17 million units in just six years. At present, 70% of the vehicles passing through Japan's toll roads are vehicles equipped with an electronic toll collection system. In the past, when the manual charges were made, the scene of the growth of the vehicles in front of the toll booths basically disappeared, and the pleasure of passing by became a lot of people choose to install. One of the reasons for ETC. When the vehicle with the ETC device enters the automatic toll gate, the two-way large-capacity communication system can immediately retain the license plate number, credit card holder, entry location and time information in two directions. When the vehicle exits the toll gate, the exit communication system will be The fee can be settled instantaneously based on the retained information. The ETC device can be pushed away in Japan so quickly. Another reason is that the government's price concession policy, regardless of the promotion, or the installation of this device, there are discounts. Recently, the holiday highways circulating in Japan's lanes are charged at 1,000 yen, and are limited to vehicles equipped with ETC.
Unlike electronic toll collection systems in many countries, Japanese ETCs use form of machine separation. That is, the machine unit is fixed to the vehicle, and the ETC card is followed by the user. No matter what vehicle the user drives, the ETC card can be settled by simply inserting the ETC card into the device of the car. The biggest advantage of this form of machine card separation is that it has great expansion. The ETC card can be used not only as a payment for road usage fees, but also for parking fees and car ferry fees (both of which are limited to local areas). In the future, such cards can also cover various consumer expenses and accumulate various rebates or discounts.
Supporting high-performance ETC cards and hardware systems is the high-speed and large-capacity communication means DSRC (Dedicated Short Range Communication), which is a dedicated short-range communication method. The DSRC uses 5.8 GHz, which enables greater capacity two-way communication between vehicles and vehicles, vehicles and roads, vehicles and various facilities, vehicles and portals.
A DSRC-compatible car navigation device is called an ITS in-vehicle device. In 2007, the Japanese authorities released the standards for ITS in-vehicle devices, and based on this device, tested various service contents to be launched in the future. These contents include more detailed and extensive road information and still images, wireless Internet access while driving and staying, interactive communication between vehicles and vehicles, and search, reservation and automatic settlement of various public facilities. The joint production unit of the relevant departments is preparing to actively popularize the ITS vehicle-mounted device in 10 years, making the intelligent transportation system in Japan more intelligent.
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